Psychedelic Drugs Flashcards Quizlet

Psychedelic Drugs Flashcards Quizlet 1

 

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Other names for psychedelic drugs (2)

psychotomimetic
psychotogenic

What do psychedelic drugs do?

alter perception, thought, feeling

True or False… the effects of psychedelic drugs are relatively consistent compared to therapeutic drugs that induce psychosis

TRUE

What are the three classifications of psychedelic drugs?

indolealkylamines
phenylethylamines
miscellaneous

What are the psychedelic indolealkylamines? Are they natural or synthetic?

LSD – synthetic
Psilocybin – natural (mushrooms)
DMT – synthetic
DET – synthetic

What NT does the structure of psychedelic indolealkylamines resemble?

serotonin

What are the psychedelic phenylethylamines? Are they natural or synthetic?

mescaline (peyote cactus) – natural
Dimethoxymethylamphetamine (DOM; STP) – synthetic

What NT does the structure of psychedelic phenylethylamines resemble?

norepinephrine

What is the primary mechanism of LSD?

stimulation of serotonin 5HT2a recptors

While classified as a miscellaneous psychedelic drug, what NT does MDMA (ecstasy) resemble?

serotonin

What happens when binding occurs to 5HT2a receptors?

hyperpolarization (therefore neuronal inhibition)

binding activates G-protein cascade with increased PI turnover
Activation of PKC and K channels
Efflux of K from neuron (hyperpolarization)

Where are 5HT2a receptors located? What do they do here?

cell bodies of Raphe neurons

here they serve as autoreceptors that inhibit cell firing and 5HT release

What is the overall effect of LSD on brain activity?

inhibition

What is the overall effect of psilocybin on brain activity?

hyperactivity in frontal and temporal lobes (where cognition and affective processes occur)
decreased activity in areas involved in integrating cortical information processing

What are the psychedelic effects of psychedelic drugs?

wave-like recurrences of perceptual changes
synesthesia: crossed sensory phenomenon
labile mood (may be severe anxiety)
dramatically altered sense of time
auditory and visual hallucinations are RARE

What are the somatic effects of psychedelic drugs?

(mainly sympathetic nervous system)
dilated pupil
tachycardia, hypertension
hyperreflexia, tremor
nausea, GI cramping
hyperthermia, piloerection

What therapeutic effect does Ketamine have? What mechanistic implication does this have?

rapid relief to chronically depressed patients
(dosed below that which would give hallucinogenic effects)

this indicates a role for NMDA Glutamate receptors can play a role in the treatment of depression

What is the therapeutic effect of Psilocybin?

anti-anxiety effects

Which of these drugs have a relatively short duration of action and which have a relatively long duration of action?

DOM
LSD
MDMA
Mescaline
DMT

short:
DMT (0.5-1 hour)
MDMA (4-8 hours)

long:
LSD (12-18 hours)
Mescaline (12-18 hours)
DOM (24-48 hours)

When does partial and complete tolerance to psychedelic effects occur?

partial: after one dose
complete: after 2-3 daily doses

True or False… patents observe withdrawl symptoms after abrupt termination of indolealkylamines or phenylethylamines following chronic use

FALSE – no withdrawl symptoms

What are the adverse effects of LSD?

bad trip (can’t control your experience)
flashback (experience hallucinations again)

What are the adverse effects of MDMA (ecstasy)?

serotonin (and maybe dopamine) neurotoxicity – rapid destruction of serotonin nerve terminals
long-term effects on serotonin neurons (some can grow back, but do so at new locations) – unsure of the effects of “rewiring”

What are the adverse effects of GHB?

CNS depression
vomiting, seizures, unconsciousness, coma
dependence and withdrawl liability

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